Embargo: Immediate release Enquiries: Doctors For Life Int.
Date: 21 May 2021 Telephone: 032 481 5550
Human Rights Organisation expressed concern over impact euthanasia law will have.
Canadian Medical Health Association concerned about Euthanasia
New England Journal of Medicine (NEJM) published a study which uncovers abuse of the Euthanasia law.
Canadian pressure stories reveal how doctors often pressure patients into choosing euthanasia even after they showed no interest.
Since South African courts will again hear attempts to legalize euthanasia or Assisted Suicide, Doctors For Life (DFL) felt it necessary to highlight some key points from countries that have gone ahead and have valuable lessons for us to learn from, and to avoid exposing South African families to the same thing.
In January this year, the United Nations Human Rights Organisation (Office of the High Commissioner) published a statement on their website titled: Disability is not a reason to sanction medically assisted dying. In it, the UN Experts expressed concern about the growing trend to legalize euthanasia for people with disabilities and said that “when life-ending interventions are normalised for people who are not terminally ill or suffering at the end of their lives, such legislative provisions tend to rest on – or draw strength from – ableist assumptions about the inherent ‘quality of life’ or ‘worth’ of the life of a person with a disability.” They also said that “Disability should never be a ground or justification to end someone’s life directly or indirectly.”
In February this year, the Canadian Medical Health Association (CMHA) responded to the Canadian government’s recent decision to permit Medical Aid in Dying (MAiD) for people with mental illnesses expressing deep disappointment. According to CMHA, until the health care system adequately responds to the mental health needs of Canadians, assisted dying should not be an option. This they also testified before the Senate in November of 2020. CMHA points out that it is “not possible to determine whether any particular case of mental illness represents “an advanced state of decline in capabilities that cannot be reversed.” And the CMHA “know that cases of severe and persistent mental illness that are initially resistant to treatment can, in fact, show significant recovery over time. Mental illness is very often episodic. Death, on the other hand, is not reversible. In Dutch and Belgian studies, a high proportion of people who were seeking MAID for psychiatric reasons, but did not get it, later changed their minds.”
In August 2017, the New England Journal of Medicine (NEJM) published a Netherlands study titled: End-of-Life Decisions in the Netherlands over 25 years which uncovered abuse of the law. In 2015 there were 150 assisted suicide deaths, 431 terminations of life without request in the Netherlands. The Netherlands euthanasia law did not prevent 431 terminations of life without request. The euthanasia lobby will argue that legalizing euthanasia and assisted suicide will regulate and prevent these types of deaths, but in fact it normalizes it as an acceptable medical practice and makes it impossible to prevent or even censure someone who carries out similar acts.
One of the things that are hidden in the Euthanasia debate is the stories of pressure and coercion, DFL will only mention one of the many examples. In 2015-2016 euthanasia was sold to Canadians as legislation with safeguards that would only be for terminally ill people who were suffering and nearing death. In 2016, it was implied that requests for euthanasia would be made by the patient and not suggested by medical professionals. In August 2016, Candice Lewis (25) who was born with multiple disabilities was pressured by a doctor to ask for euthanasia. Candice was very sick and receiving treatment. The doctor asked her mother if she knew that assisted death was legalized – her mother said no. The doctor said that he was in support of euthanasia and wanted to help her. The doctor was told that they were not interested in euthanasia and then the doctor told Candice’s mother that she was being selfish and he challenged Candice by saying: “do you know how sick you are?” Candice eventually recovered but just imagine, if the doctors advise was trusted and they made a decision based on that. More such examples can be referred to but this gives us just a glimpse of what South Africa can expect if Dr Suzanne Walters and her patient get their way and manage to persuade the court to legalize euthanasia in South Africa. Even though the UN Human Rights experts concern pertained to the disabled and euthanasia for them would amount to normalising and ableism, DFL reckons that the same is true for any other form of euthanasia.
In response to the Canadian government’s recent decision to permit Medical Aid in Dying (MAiD) for people with mental illnesses, the Canadian Mental Health Association (CMHA) issued a statement expressing deep disappointment. According to CMHA, until the health care system adequately responds to the mental health needs of Canadians, assisted dying should not be an option. This they also testified before the Senate in November of 2020.
CMHA points out that it is “not possible to determine whether any particular case of mental illness represents “an advanced state of decline in capabilities that cannot be reversed.” And the CMHA “know that cases of severe and persistent mental illness that are initially resistant to treatment can, in fact, show significant recovery over time. Mental illness is very often episodic. Death, on the other hand, is not reversible. In Dutch and Belgian studies, a high proportion of people who were seeking MAID for psychiatric reasons, but did not get it, later changed their minds.”
United Nations Human Rights experts expressed alarm at a growing trend to legalise euthanasia based largely on having a disability or disabling conditions, including in old age. They said that Disability should never be a ground or justification to end someone’s life directly or indirectly.
This, the experts said, that normalizing euthanasia for the people who are not terminally ill or suffering at the end of their lives would give rise to discriminative assumptions about the inherent “quality of life” or “worth” of the life of a person with a disability. Such assumptions are grounded in ableism and associated stereotypes. Disability is not a burden or a deficit of the person. It is a universal aspect of the human condition.
The known facts of the science of human embryology are not “new”. The first to study the human embryo systematically was Wilhelm His, Sr., who established the basis of reconstruction, i.e., the assembling of three-dimensional form from microscopic sections. His, who has been called the “Vesalium of human embryology,” published his three-volume masterpiece Anatomie menschlicher Embryonen in 1880-85 [His, Vogel, Leipzig]. In it the human embryo was studied as a whole for the first time internationally. A detailedHandbook of Human Embryology by Keibel and Mall appeared in 1910-12 . Franklin P. Mall, who studied under His, established the Carnegie Embryological Collection in Baltimore and was the first person to stage human embryos (in1914)
The standard source for generations for the documentation for both human sexual and the human asexual reproductive technique of “twinning” has been the Carnegie Stages, and especially when they developed their internet online website, volumes of articles and books have been written referencing those Stages and the URLs where they could be found. Those online URLs have now changed, precluding others reading these articles and books from double-checking them for accuracy. In order to continue to be able to verify such documentation, the following NEW URLs for theCarnegie Stagesis provided:
Go to the URLs listed below (examples of first 6 Stages only). Any particular Stage will first be shown as a brief summary of the scientific facts on that website URL. But if you look toward the bottom left of the webpage, you will see a “photo” of a human embryology textbook by O’Rahilly and Muller; it is actually a hyperlink. Click into that hyperlink, and you will be taken to the full original pages of the Carnegie Stage giving extensive details and documentation.
A. Examples of new online URLs for the Carnegie Stages
Stage 1 is the unicellular embryo that contains unique genetic material and is an individually specific cell that has the potential to develop into all of the subsequent stages of a human being. It is the beginning of embryonic life and ontogenetic development that starts when an oocyte, arrested in metaphase of meiosis II, is penetrated by a sperm.This is the first event of fertilization. The embryo has a postovulatory age of approximately one day, is between 0.1 to 0.15 mm in diameter and weighs approximately 0.004 mg.
“… Stage 1 is divided into three substages; a, b and c. Stage 1a is referred to as the primordial embryo since all the genetic material necessary for the new individual, plus some redundant chromosomes, is now within a single plasma lemma (cell membrane). [Note:all of the components define the “embryo”, not just the genes; and these components must work in sync with each other, thus themselves pre-determining the final coding of the genome – which itself can change from internal and external causes during early development. The human genome is defined as including all the DNA in a cell — both nuclear and mitochondrial — not just the nuclear.] From the perspective of the female gamete it has also been named the penetrated oocyte. The fertilizing sperm has passed through the zona (capsula) pellucida and its plasmalemma has fused with that of the oocyte.
“… Penetration activates the embryo into resuming its arrested meiosis II  and after anaphase it enters telophase with the expulsion of the redundant chromosomes as a second polar body. This marks the beginning of Stage 1b in which the single-cell is referred to as the pronuclear embryo . From the perspective of the female gamete it has also been named the ootid because its female component is haploid like a spermatid. However, in the pronuclear embryo there are two separate haploid components: one maternal, or female, pronucleus and one paternal, or male, pronucleus.
“… The pronuclei move toward each other and eventually compress their envelopes where they lie adjacent near the center of the cell. Stage 1c is the last phase of fertilization and exists for a relatively short period. The pronuclear envelopes disappear and the parental chromosomes that were contained in separate pronuclei come together in a process called syngamy thereby establishing the genome of the embryo. The one-cell Stage 1c embryo is named the syngamic embryo orzygote. The chromosomes assume positions on the rapidly formed first mitotic spindle in preparation for cleavage.”
II. Additional Resources
A. Online URLs for the International Committee on Human Embryology
The most recent updating of theCarnegie Stages(Jan. 2012) by the international nomenclature committee on human embryology, i.e., the Terminologia Embryologica Committee (FIPAT) , is now also online and accessible on the internet (although not as “user friendly”).
The embryo sexually reproduced begins to exist at the beginning of the process of fertilization:
Again, go to FIPAT, at: http://www.unifr.ch/ifaa/. Click on “Free access to published terminologies”, “Enter” to get to: http://www.unifr.ch/ifaa/Public/EntryPage/HomePublic.html. You are now on the Public Entry Page; Click into “Source terminologies as originally published”, to get to: http://www.unifr.ch/ifaa/Public/EntryPage/ViewSource.html. This page lists the 3 Terminologias. To the right of the page, under “Terminologia Embryologica, from internal document (2009)”, click onto e2.0: “Ontogeny”in order to get to: http://www.unifr.ch/ifaa/Public/EntryPage/ViewTE/TEe02.html. You are now viewing “Page 8”. This is a bit tricky: Now use button-arrows at top right of web page to move to Page 10to arrive at the description of Carnegie Stages 1-5 in the Chart. The right side of the Chart provides the following documentation of the first 5 Stages; see especially “Single cellEMBRYO [St. 1] [[“Stage One”]]. At the bottom of Page 10, in a footnote, you can find their rejection of the false scientific term “pre-embryo”: Footnote #32 – E220.127.116.11.0.0.3 – Embryo praegastrulationis [St. 1 ad 6a] The term pregastrulation embryo is useful because such an embryo has distinctive attributes (see footnote 35). The foreshortened term “pre-embryo”, which has been used in legal and clinical contexts, is not recommended.”[[Note: “St. 1 ad 6a” means “Stages 1 to 6a“]]
was originally developed as a collaboration between embryologist Dr. Raymond Gasser at LSUHSC and the HDAC in Washington DC. The overall aim of the project is to make the Carnegie collection, which is housed at the HDAC, accessible for research and teaching of human embryology. Dr. John Cork at LSUHSC joined the project at its inception as the software developer with a special interest in 3D-reconstruction. The project has two components, both of which are supported by grants from the National Institutes of Health. Anyone can access the various stages of the new sexually reproduced developing human embryo by going to the Virtual Human Embryo’s “DREM DEMOS” page, click into “Enter”, then click into “Demo” on the left of the page. Click into “Stage One: Introduction”: https://www.prenatalorigins.org/virtual-human-embryo/stage.php?stage=1
Stage 1 is the unicellular embryothat contains unique genetic material and is an individually specific cell that has the potential to develop into all of the subsequent stages of a human being. It is the beginning of embryonic life and ontogenetic development that starts when an oocyte, arrested in metaphase of meiosis II, is penetrated by a sperm. This is the first event of fertilization.The embryo has a postovulatory age of approximately one day, is between 0.1 to 0.15 mm in diameter and weighs approximately 0.004 mg.
Fertilization is a series of events that begins when a sperm makes contact with an oocyte and ends with the intermingling of paternal (male) and maternal (female) chromosomes on the spindle at metaphase of the first mitotic division of the single cell. The events of fertilization require just over 24 hrs. to complete and normally take place in the ampulla of the uterine tube. Stage 1 is divided into three substages; a, b and c. Stage 1a is referred to as the ‘primordial embryo’since all the genetic material necessary for the new individual, plus some redundant chromosomes, is now within a single plasmalemma (cell membrane). From the perspective of the female gamete it has also been named the penetrated oocyte. The fertilizing sperm has passed through the zona (capsula) pellucida and its plasmalemma has fused with that of the oocyte. Penetration activates the embryo into resuming its arrested meiosis II and after anaphase it enters telophase with the expulsion of the redundant chromosomes as a second polar body. This marks the beginning of Stage 1b in which the single-cell is referred to as the ‘pronuclear embryo’. From the perspective of the female gamete it has also been named the ootid because its female component is haploid like a spermatid. However, in the pronuclear embryo there are two separate haploid components: one maternal, or female, pronucleus and one paternal, or male, pronucleus. The pronuclei move toward each other and eventually compress their envelopes where they lie adjacent near the center of the cell. Stage 1c is the last phase of fertilization and exists for a relatively short period.The pronuclear envelopes disappear and the parental chromosomes that were contained in separate pronuclei come together in a process called syngamy thereby establishing the genome of the embryo. The one-cell Stage 1c embryo is named the ‘syngamic embryo’ or zygote.The chromosomes assume positions on the rapidly formed first mitotic spindle in preparation for cleavage. [http://virtualhumanembryo.lsuhsc.edu/demos/Stage1/Intro_pg/Intro.htm]
C. The iPhone App – “Embryo”[*** in process of being changed to a new URL]
Thanks to USA.gov, anyone can access the new iPhone appentitled, “Embryo”, from the National Library of Medicine, documenting the same facts of human embryology. The iPhone app is now available at: http://apps.usa.gov/embryo/. It is necessary to have iTunes for this application, but you can download it free from this same site (also downloads onto all computers). As noted on this government website:
Scientists and educators have used the Carnegie Embryo Collection, housed at the National Museum of Health and Medicine, to define normal human embryo development for decades. A database, called the Virtual Human Embryo, has been created to provide digital serial sections of human embryos from the collection….
This project is a collaboration between:
National Library of Medicine
Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development
Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center
National Museum of Health & Medicine, Human Developmental Anatomy Center [TheCarnegie Stages of Early Human Embryonic Development]
III. A Few Additional References for Sexual and Asexual Human Reproduction:
Human Sexual Reproduction:
** Ronan O’Rahilly and Fabiola Muller, Human Embryology & Teratology, 3rd ed. (New York: Wiley-Liss, 2001):
— Recapitulation, the So-Called Biogenetic Law.The theory that successive stages of individual development (ontogeny) correspond with (“recapitulate”) successive adult ancestors in the line of evolutionary descent (phylogeny) became popular in the nineteenth century as the so-called biogenetic law. This theory of recapitulation, however, has had a “regrettable influence on the progress of embryology”(G. de Beer)…. According to the “laws” of von Baer, general characters (e.g., brain, notochord) appear in development earlier than special characters(e.g., limbs, hair). Furthermore, during its development an animal departs more and more from the form of other animals. Indeed, the early stages in the development of an animal are not like the adult stages of other forms but resemble only the early stages of those animals.The pharyngeal clefts of vertebrate embryos, for example, are neither gills nor slits. Although a fish elaborates this region into gill slits, in reptiles, birds, and mammals it is converted into such structures as the tonsils and the thymus (p. 16).
… (Fertilization is)the procession of events that begins when a spermatozoon makes contact with a secondary oocyte or its investments, and ends with the intermingling of maternal and paternal chromosomes at metaphase of the first mitotic division of the zygote. (p. 19).
— Although life is a continuous process, fertilization… is a critical landmark because, under ordinary circumstances, a new, genetically distinct human organism is formed… (p. 31).
— Fertilization takes place normallyin the ampulla (lateral end) of the uterine tube (p. 31).
— “The term ‘pre-embryo’ is not used herefor the following reasons: (1) it is ill-definedbecause it is said to end with the appearance of the primitive streak or to include neurulation; (2) it is inaccuratebecause purely embryonic cells can already be distinguished after a few days, as can also the embryonic (not pre-embryonic!) disc; (3) it is unjustifiedbecause the accepted meaning of the word embryo includes all of the first 8 weeks; (4) it is equivocalbecause it may convey the erroneous idea that a new human organism is formed at only some considerable time after fertilization; and (5) it was introduced in 1986 ‘largely for public policy reasons’(Biggers).”… Just as postnatal age begins at birth, prenatal age begins at fertilization,” (p. 88).
— “Undesirable terms in Human Embryology”: “Pre-embryo”; ill defined and inaccurate; Use “embryo”(p. 12). [Note: O’Rahilly is one of the originators of The Carnegie Stages of Early Human Embryological Development, and has sat on the international committee for human embryology for decades]
** BRUCE M. CARLSON, Human Embryology and Developmental Biology (St. Louis, MO: Mosby, 1994): Human pregnancy begins with the fusion of an egg and a sperm. (p. 3); … finally, the fertilized egg, now properly called an embryo, must make its way into the uterus (p. 3) ; … The sex of the future embryo is determined by the chromosomal complement of the spermatozoon … Through the mingling of maternal and paternal chromosomes, the zygote is a genetically unique product of chromosomal reassortment .. (p. 31); … “After the eighth week of pregnancy the period of organogenesis (embryonic period) is largely completed and the fetal period begins. (p. 407)
** BRUCE M. CARLSON, Human Embryology & Developmental Biology (St. Louis, MO: Mosby, 1999): “Human pregnancy begins with the fusion of an egg and a sperm, but a great deal of preparation [recedes this event. First both male and female sex cells must pass through a long series of changes (gametogenesis) that convert them genetically and phenotypically into mature gametes, which are capable of participating in the process of fertilization. Next, the gametes must be released from the gonads and make their way to the upper part of the uterine tube, where fertilization normally takes place. … Finally, the fertilized egg, now properly called an embryo, must make its way into the uterus ….”. (p. 2); … Fertilization age: dates the age of the embryo from the time of fertilization. (p. 23) … In the female, sperm transport begins in the upper vagina and ends in the ampulla of the uterine tube [fallopian tube] where the spermatozoa make contact with the ovulated egg. (p. 27) … After the eighth week of pregnancy the period of organogenesis (embryonic period) is largely completed, and the fetal period begins.” (p. 447). … The sex of the future embryo is determined by the chromosomal complement of the spermatozoon. (If the sperm contains 22 autosomes and an X chromosome, the embryo will be a genetic female, and if it contains 22 autosomes and a Y chromosome, the embryo will be a male.) … Through the mingling of maternal and paternal chromosomes, the zygote is a genetically unique product of chromosomal reassortment, which is important for the viability of any species. (p. 32)
** WILLIAM J. LARSEN, Human Embryology (New York: Churchill Livingstone, 1997): In this text, we begin our description of the developing human with the formation and differentiation of the male and female sex cells or gametes, which will unite at fertilization to initiate the embryonic development of a new individual. … Fertilization takes place in the oviduct [not the uterus]… resulting in the formation of a zygote containing a single diploid nucleus. Embryonic development is considered to begin at this point. (p. 1); … “These pronuclei fuse with each other to produce the single, diploid, 2N nucleus of the fertilized zygote. This moment of zygote formation may be taken as the beginning or zero time point of embryonic development. (p. 17).
** Geoffrey Sher, Virginia Marriage Davis, Jean Stoess, In Vitro Fertilization:The A.R.T. of Making Babies (New York: Facts On File, 1998): The moment a sperm penetrates the egg’s zona pellucida, a reaction in the egg fuses the zona and the perivitelline membrane into an impermeable shield that prevents other sperm from entering. … Propelled by contractions of the fallopian tube, the dividing embryo begins its three- or four-day journey back to the uterus and continues to divide after it reaches the uterus. (The fertilization process occurs near the middle of the fallopian tube — not in the uterus.) (p. 18)
** Lewin, Benjamin, Genes VII(New York: Oxford University Press, 2000):
— “A genome consists of the entire set of chromosomes for any particular organism, and therefore comprises a series of DNA molecules, each of which contains a series of many genes. The ultimate definition of a genome is to determine the sequence of the DNA of each chromosome. (p. 4)
… “Genes not residing within the nucleus are generally described as extranuclear; they are transcribed and translated in the same organelle compartment (mitochondrion or chloroplast) in which they reside. By contrast, nuclear genesare expressed by means of cytoplasmic protein synthesis.” (p. 81)
** Read, Andrew P., and Tom Strachan, Human Molecular Genetics 2, 2nd ed. (New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1999):
— “In animal cells, DNA is found in both the nucleus and the mitochondria.” (p. 10)
— “The mitochondria also have ribosomes and a limited capacity for protein synthesis.” (p. 18)
— “The human genome is the term used to describe the total genetic information (DNA content) in human cells.It really comprises two genomes: a complexnucleargenome…, and a simple mitochondrial genome…Mitochondria possess their own ribosomes and the few polypeptide-encoding genes in the mitochondrial genome produce mRMAs, which are translated on the mitochondrial ribosomes.” (p. 139)
Human Asexual Reproduction:
** Tom Strachan and Andrew P. Read, Human Molecular Genetics 2 (New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1999), pp. 508-509].
— The term ‘clones’ indicates genetic identityand so can describe genetically identical molecules(DNA clones), genetically identicalcellsor genetically identical organisms. Animal clones occur naturallyas a result of sexual reproduction. For example, genetically identical twins [momozygotic twins] are clones… A form of animal cloning can also occur as a result of artificial manipulationto bring about a type of asexual reproduction. The genetic manipulation in this case uses nuclear transfer technology: a nucleus is removed from a donor cell then transplanted into an oocyte whose own nucleus has previously been removed…. The individual providing the donor nucleus and the individual that develops from the ‘renucleated’ oocyte are usually described as “clones”, but it should be noted that they share only the same nuclear DNA; they do not share the same mitochondrial DNA, unlike genetically identical twins…. Wilmut et al (1997) reported successful cloning of an adult sheep. For the first time, an adult nucleus had been reprogrammed to becometotipotent once more, just like the genetic material in the fertilized oocytefrom which the donor cell had ultimately developed…. Successful cloning of adult animals has forced us to accept that genome modifications once considered irreversible can be reversed and that the genomes of adult cells can be reprogrammed by factors in the oocyte to make themtotipotent once again.
** Carlson, Bruce M., Human Embryology and Developmental Biology, 2nd ed. (St. Louis, MO: Mosby, 1999):
— Early mammalian embryogenesis is considered to be a highly regulative process.Regulationis the ability of an embryo or an organ primordium to produce a normal structure if parts have been removed or added. At the cellular level, it means that the fates of cells in a regulative system are not irretrievably fixed and that the cells can still respond to environmental cues. (p. 44).
— Some types of twinning represent a natural experiment that demonstrates the highly regulative nature of early human embryos,… (p. 48).
— Monozygotic twins and some triplets, on the other hand, are the product of one fertilized egg. They arise by the subdivision and splitting of a single embryo.Although monozygotic twins could… arise by the splitting of a two-cell embryo, it is commonly accepted that most arise by the subdivision of the inner cell mass in a blastocyst. Because the majority of monozygotic twins are perfectly normal, the early human embryo can obviously be subdivided and each component regulated to form a normal embryo.(p. 49)
— Of the experimental techniques used to demonstrate regulative properties of early embryos, the simplest is to separate the blastomeres of early cleavage-stage embryos and determine whether each one can give rise to an entire embryo. This method has been used to demonstrate that single blastomeres, from two- and sometimes four-cell embryos can form normal embryos,… (p. 44).
— The relationship between the positionof the blastomeres and their ultimate developmental fate was incorporated into the inside-outside hypothesis. The outer blastomeresultimately differentiate into the trophoblast, whereas the inner blastomeres form the inner cell mass, from which the body of the embryo arises. Although this hypothesis has been supported by a variety of experiments, the mechanisms by which the blastomeres recognize their positions and then differentiate accordingly have remained elusive and are still little understood. If marked blastomeres from disaggregated embryos are placed on the outside of another early embryo, they typically contribute to the formation of the trophoblast. Conversely, if the same marked cells are introduced into the interior of the host embryo, they participate in formation of the inner cell mass.Outer cells in the early mammalian embryo are linked by tight and gap junctions… Experiments of this type demonstrate that the developmental potential or potency (the types of cells that a precursor cell can form) of many cells is greater than their normal developmental fate (the types of cells that a precursor cell normally forms). (p. 45).
— Another means of demonstrating the regulative properties of early mammalian embryosis to dissociate mouse embryos into separate blastomeres and then to combine the blastomeres of two or three embryos. The combined blastomeres soon aggregate and reorganize to become a single large embryo, which then goes on to become a normalappearing tetraparental or hexaparental mouse.By various techniques of making chimeric embryos, it is even possible to combine blastomeres to produce interspecies chimeras(e.g., a sheep-goat). (p. 45).
— Blastomere removal and addition experiments have convincingly demonstrated the regulative nature(i.e., the strong tendency for the system to be restored to wholeness) of early mammalian embryos. Such knowledge is important in understanding the reason exposure of early human embryos to unfavorable environmental influences typically results in either death or a normal embryo. (p. 46).
— Classic strategiesfor investigating developmental properties of embryos are (1) removing a part and determining the way the remainder of the embryo compensates for the loss(such experiments are called deletion experiments) and (2) adding a part and determining the way the embryo integrates the added materialinto its overall body plan (such experiments are called addition experiments). Although some deletion experiments have been done, the strategy of addition experiments has proved to be most fruitful in elucidating mechanisms controlling mammalian embryogenesis. (p. 46).
** Elder, Kay T. “Laboratory techniques: Oocyte collection and embryo culture,” in ed. Peter Brinsden, A Textbook of in vitro Fertilization and Assisted Reproduction, 2nd ed. (New York: The Parthenon Publishing Group, 1999):
— Surprisingly, fragmented embryos, repaired or not, do implant and often come to term. This demonstrates the highly robust nature of the human embryo, as it can apparently lose over half of its cellular mass and still recover. (p. 197)
** Larsen, William, Essentials of Human Embryology(New York: Churchill Livingstone, 1998):
— If the splitting occurred during cleavage– for example, if the two blastomeres produced by the first cleavage division become separated – the monozygotic twin blastomeres will implant separately, like dizygotic twin blastomeres, and will not share fetal membranes. Alternatively, if the twins are formed by splitting of the inner cell mass within the blastocyst, they will occupy the same chorion but will be enclosed by separate amnions and will use separate placentae, each placenta developing around the connecting stalk of its respective embryo. Finally, if the twins are formed by splitting of a bilaminar germ disc, they will occupy the same amnion. (p. 325)
** Ronan O’Rahilly and Fabiola Muller, Human Embryology & Teratology (New York: Wiley-Liss, 2001):
— Biopsy of an embryo can be performed by removing one cell from a 4-cell, or two cells from an 8-cell, embryo. This does not seem to decrease the developmental capacity of the remaining cells. (p. 37).
— The embryo enters the uterine cavity after about half a week… Each cell (blastomere) is considered to be still totipotent (capable, on isolation, of forming a complete embryo), and separation of these early cells is believed to account for one-third of cases of monozygotic twinning, (p. 37).
** National Bioethics Advisory Commission. Cloning Human Beings: Report and Recommendations. (Rockville, MD: June 1997):
— The Commission began its discussions fully recognizing that any effort in humans to transfer a somatic cell nucleus into an enucleated egg involves the creation of an embryo, with the apparent potential to be implanted in utero and developed to term. (p. 3).
** National Institutes of Health. Background Paper: Cloning: Present uses and Promises, Jan. 29, 1998.
— This experiment [producing Dolly] demonstrated that, when appropriately manipulated and placed in the correct environment, the genetic material of somatic cells can regain its full potential to direct embryonic, fetal, and subsequent development. (p. 3).
Dr. Dianne N. Irving (1994), a former research biochemist at the NIH/NCI in radiation biology and Professor of Philosophy at the Dominican House of Studies, also gave a relevant testimony before HERP.
This 1-hour joint webinar of the Christian Medical & Dental Association (CMDA) and The Hendricks Center (THC) – Dallas Theological Seminary, discusses the topic of re-opening churches safely & effectively amid the COVID-19 pandemic and the science that it involves.
Vaccines, its safety, and the issue of using fetal cell lines in vaccines, is another topic covered in this webinar that will give an understanding on the topic. Finally, a Q&A session ensues between participants and speakers.
The two speakers are:
Stephen Ko, Former Professor of the global health and Pediatrics at Boston University, Medical Officer for the Center for Disease Control & Prevention (CDC), Pastor of Three Stone church in NY city, Also Adjunct faculty for Missions at the Alliance of theological Seminary.
Dr Jeff Barrows, Senior Vice President of Bioethics & Public Policy concentrates on OB/GYN & has a master’s degree in Bioethics from the Trinity Evangelical Divinity School (sister school to Dallas Theological Seminary). From CMDA.
The views expressed in this webinar reflects the views of Doctors For Life International.
The American College of Pediatricians (ACPeds) is a national organization of pediatricians and other healthcare professionals dedicated to the health and well-being of children.
The ACPeds is a scientific medical association of healthcare professionals that advocates for policies that promote the optimal health and well-being of children. Although our members are often cited and interviewed by conservative publications, the ACPeds is not a religious or political organization; it does not inquire about or use an individual’s religious or political identification as criteria for membership.
Executive Director, Michelle Cretella, MD, FCP, is the one conducting the video presentation on the harms of the Sexual Revolution by starting off on the medical implications & impact of teenage sexual activity, teenage pregnancy, abortion, homosexual and transgender lifestyle.
Editor’s note: The Ruth Institute first published this information and with permission, DFL has decided to make use of this material.
Doctors For Life International’s (DFL) webinar on “The Humanity of the Unborn Child” 5 August 2020. The guest speaker who did the presentation was, Dr Chris Warton, a Lecturer at the University of Cape Town on Human Anatomy, Embryology and neuroscience. Also included is Dr Albu van Eeden, CEO of DFL, and Mr Martus de Wet, from De Wet Wepener Inc. Attorneys.
For those who missed out and would like to have participated:
On 2 July 2020 around 19h00, Doctors For Life hosted a webinar on the topic of Abortion, Conscientious Objection and the Law. Our Guest Speaker was Adv. Keith Matthee SC and participants from across Africa, and from other countries joined us for this meeting.
The webinar also gave participants a chance to engage the speaker and put forward any questions they might have. For those who missed it and would like to watch the webinar, we have made this possible along with access to the power point presentation presented in the webinar.
As for the pro forma document mentioned in the webinar to the hospitals, contact [email protected] to get access.
The technical storage or access is strictly necessary for the legitimate purpose of enabling the use of a specific service explicitly requested by the subscriber or user, or for the sole purpose of carrying out the transmission of a communication over an electronic communications network.
The technical storage or access is necessary for the legitimate purpose of storing preferences that are not requested by the subscriber or user.
The technical storage or access that is used exclusively for statistical purposes.The technical storage or access that is used exclusively for anonymous statistical purposes. Without a subpoena, voluntary compliance on the part of your Internet Service Provider, or additional records from a third party, information stored or retrieved for this purpose alone cannot usually be used to identify you.
The technical storage or access is required to create user profiles to send advertising, or to track the user on a website or across several websites for similar marketing purposes.